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Month: April 2016

Fin Rot

Fin Rot


Fin Rot is where your goldfish fins looks torn and ragged. It may look like the chunk or slices or the fin is missing. Fin Rot may cause discoloration and even lethargic if it’s not treated properly.



There is several cause to it and the mast commonly – poor water quality and of course there are as well other cause which include fighting, rough handling and overcrowded tank.

Fish tank contains a lot of bacteria which normally don’t harm your fish. But when the water quality is poor, your fish become stress and lower down the immune system and in the same time if you have more “bad ” bacteria in the tank , the bacteria may tend to eat up the fins which cause the fin rot.

Fish with fin rot always scratch them with the tank furniture which may cause more damage as the wound may infected with other bacteria




  • split and ragged fins, sometimes with a white edge on it.
  • red streaks on fins




Isolated the affected fish and placed them in a clean container with clean water. Wash the tank and all accessories and not to forget to check the PH level to ensure water quality is good. PH should be around 7-8 and the ammonia, zero nitrites and nitrates should be no higher than 40 ppm.

If your fin rot doesn’t improve in a few days. Please use antibacterial treatment for e.g. Jungle Fungus Eliminator and Tetracycline. You can also use brands like Maracyn, Maracyn II, Waterlife- Myxazin, and MelaFix.Make sure the fin rot treatment does not contain any organic dyes, as they can be toxic to certain fish.

I find the following treatment works :

Day 1 – do an immediate 40% water change and examine all aquarium conditions. You may want to follow the 6-day treatment to cure this disease.

Premix these ingredients before adding to the main tank:

Pure rock Salt/sea salt: 1 tablespoon per 10 gallons
Epson salt: 1 teaspoon per 10 gallons
Melafix: 1/2 teaspoon per 10 gallons if pH not over 7.5

Combine salts into 1/4 cup of warm water to dissolve. Mix to dilute Melafix in a freshwater Bucket.

Replace only 5%(of fresh water) every 15 minutes to reduce the risk of shock. Add water treatment to the water you add to the tank to remove ammonia and chlorine.

Day 2 to 5 – you will repeat the following process:

  • perform a 20% partial water change using the directions on 1st day
  • add salt: 1 tablespoon per 10 gallons
  • don’t forget to dilute and mix thoroughly in a 1 gallon of tank water before adding to the tank

Day 6 – you will be reversing the treatment by performing only water changes for 5 more days

Day 11 – repeat entire treatment but use only salt. If after 30 days signs of infection remain, start treatment again.

When you treat your sick fish , please ensure the oxygen level is high because medication tend to leech oxygen. Only with sufficient oxygen supply your fish can live healthily.





Generally dropsy is not a disease but a sign of disease which you can easily observed because the fish is bloated . Frequently , the fish scales stand out of the body giving it a pinecone-like appearance. Dropsy is normally cause by the bacterial infection in kidney which retain the body fluid causing the swelling . When you observed the symptoms normally chances of survive will be low. Thus, you must always observed the behaviour of the fishes. if you can diagnosed early , chances of the surviving is definitely higher.



Dropsy occurs when your goldfish suffered from kidney malfunction. When they are not able to get rid of all the water which is taking in from the tank or pond and instead starts to swell up like a balloon. There is a certain amount of salt level in their body which is normally higher than the salt level in the tank/ pond. Naturally , the fish will maintain the salt level in the body, expel excessing water and create a balance in it in order to survive . This process is control by Goldfish’s kidney.

There is several causes to Dropsy :- Infection or injury that causing the kidney become less efficient, Intestinal blockage or anything else that upset the balance causing the water to enter the body of the goldfish.



  • Swollen belly that makes your fish look very fat, sometimes you probably will think it will be going to explode.
  • Pinecone-like scales
  • one or probably both bulging eyes
  • Swimming problem , it’s either float on top or sink at the bottom


To be honest , It’s very hard to cure dropsy. However , you may try the following steps to give your goldfish a small chance of recovery. First, isolated the affected fish into a quarantine tank. Add Anti-bacterial treatment such as Acriflavine and Epsom salt (in a portion of 2 1/2 table spoon in 10 gallons of water) reason being is to draw out the excess fluids in the goldfish to give it a relief. Remember to replenish the salt when you do water change. Keep the fish in the quarantine tank until the symptoms disappeared. However , it’s still very much depend on the the kidney function whether it can repair by itself during the quarantine tank treatment.

Cotton Mouth

Cotton Mouth


Cotton mouth is a serious illness , it can be fatal too because the growth obstruct the ability to eat and often gets wrongly diagnosed as a fungus which led to a wrong treatment. It’s a bacterial infection. The name pretty much sum up how it looks, a ball of cotton wool around the mouth of the fish. Once the symptoms spotted you need to quickly dealt with it because the delayed in action may harm the rest of the fish in the tank


The bacteria infection is normally when you introduced new fishes from pet store without quarantine into your tank. Please ensure the fishes you bought quarantined at least 30 days before introduced to your new tank.

Poor water quality will led to the cotton mouth too. So, ensuring the optimum water quality and keep the tank as clean as possible. It will definitely help to stop the bacteria from spreading.


  • White growths that look like cotton wool
  • White spots around the mouth, fins and scales
  • Grey or white lines developing around the mouth, which eventually produce short tufts
  • Dry skin
  • A thick and overdeveloped slime coat
  • lack of appetite


It can possibly take several weeks for the recovery. In the severe case, you may need to apply the antibacterial medication on the fish mouth to eradicate the bacteria. While in the situation of early diagnose, you may add melafix into the tank , Melafix works pretty well and fairly safe.Ensuring a regular water change is vital in preventing bacteria spreading in the tank.

Carp Pox

Carp Pox


Carp Pox is not harmful to the goldfish. Fishes normally do not die from Carp pox. If the fishes suffer from Carp pox , there is some waxy spots appear on the scale or fins. Once the fish infected you can easily observe the symptoms and the longer the exposure will lower down the fish immunity which may prone to develop a secondary bacterial infection.




Carp Pox is caused by a virus strain named HPV-1. The most common transmission is sharing tank with the infected fish. But still it’s not known like hoe the virus passing around. Because only some fishes will get affected and some may not.




  • In the initial stage , carp pox appears as milky- looking skin lesions , which look waxy and smooth.
  • White & pinkish and greyish waxy looking growth in the scale and fins




There is no treatment for carp pox. Good water quality is best way to avoid disease outbreak. Water temperature is the key factor of Carp pox . If you need to, you can slightly increase the water temperature for a  week or two. Just monitor closely the fish behavior . if the symptoms subside you may readjust it to it’s normal temperature.

The best way to prevent Carp pox  is to reduce  stress within the fish population- Ensure the tank is not over crowded and maintain good water quality .

Goldfish Varieties

Goldfish Varieties



Oranda Goldfish



Giant Oranda



High Back Ryukin

ryukin highback





Black Moor



Butterfly Tail



Tri-Color Butterfly Tail



Pearl Scale Goldfish



Celestial Eye

Celestial Eye

Bubble Eye





Ulcers are open sores on the surface of the body of the goldfish, which look like red, white or pink wounds. It caused by the presence of bad bacteria attacking the surface of the scales, leading to irritation ,inflammation and infection.


The bad bacteria will generally only thrive and reproduce in a large enough numbers to be a threat to your fish if something within the tank is not right. For example,  poor water quality or your fish are not on a balanced diet.

The bacteria can also be introduced into the tank when you add new fish. Therefore , you should quarantine new fish for two to four weeks as a precautionary measure to ensure the rest of the fish in the tank is not affected.


What if you fish is diagnosed with Ulcer? Do not panic !!! Ulcers can be treated successfully .you just need to give some extra care to the affected fish . First of all ,remove them and put them into an isolation tank. You will need to clean the affected  fish on their ulcer with iodine and hydrogen peroxide on a Q-tip. Add on antibiotic  solution to eradicate the bacteria. Meantime, Keep an eye on the non-affected fish too . If there is a symptom of ulcer , you may need to isolate them too.



Pop Eye

Pop Eye

popeyeWhat is POP EYE?

Pop eye isn’t a disease itself but it’s a kind of infection which cause by the underlying tissue . It causes one or both eyes protrude from the socket. The swelling of the eye cause by the build up of excessive fluid from the tissue of the eyeball at the back and forcing the eye ball outwards.

If the eyeball appear cloudy. There is possibilities of scarring and damage to the cornea which might affect the vision.


The three common problems causing Pop eye is the water quality, injury and bacterial/parasitic infection.

  • Bad water quality such as high nitrate,metal and ammonia . If more than one fish from the tank suffered from pop eye water quality is certainly the one to blame.
  • Physical injury which cause by sharp tank furniture or result from a fight with other fish.
  • Bacterial or parasitic infections are the other common cause of pop eye in fish, and this usually affects both eyes, or begins with one eye and spreads to the other.

Vitamin A deficiency, tumors and gas embolism are less common reasons.


  • Visibly swelling on one or both eye
  • Cloudy eye
  • Swelling eye and with some bloodstain which may cause by injury
  • Rupture of the eye


It’s crucial to identify the problem. The affected fish should be moved to a isolated tank. Daily water change should help and epson salt( Magnesium Sulfate ) can be added to draw the fluid out. The best ratio should be 1 tablespoon to 5 gallons of water, If water quality is the problem 50% of water change must made as soon as possible.Double checked the item or tank furniture that newly added in the tank to ensure no sharp edge or letting off chemicals. Overstocking is another common problem which led to high nitrate reading thus, do not overfeed.If the water readings are wrong (high nitrates etc), a 50 percent water change is recommended again and 15-20 percent water changes 3-5 times per week, until the water readings are correct.If a bacterial infection is the cause we would recommend ‘Maracyn’, ‘Maracyn II’, ‘Anti-internal bacteria’ and’eSHa 2000′  for treatment.

Minor damage and swelling can diminish with time, if  the fish is provided with optimal water conditions and a balanced diet.

Popeye can be prevented simply by providing fish with a healthy aquarium environment and by taking steps to minimize the risk of physical damage.


GoldFish History

GoldFish History

131548100Goldfish was one of the earliest fish to be domesticated, and it’s one of the most common kept aquarium fish. It was domesticated in China more than a thousand years ago, and several distinct breeds have since been developed. Goldfish breeds vary greatly in size, body shape, fin configuration and colouration (various combinations of white, yellow, orange, red, brown, and black are known).

Goldfish is a member of Carp family. Some of these normally gray or silver species have a tendency to produce red, orange or yellow colour mutations; this was first recorded during the Jin Dynasty ( Ancient China).

During the Tang Dynasty, it was popular to raise carp in ornamental ponds and water garden . A natural genetic mutation produced gold (actually yellowish orange) rather than silver colouration.

By the Song Dynasty, the domestication of goldfish was firmly established. In 1162, the empress of the Song dynasty ordered the construction of a pond to collect the red and gold variety. By this time, people outside the imperial family were forbidden to keep goldfish of the gold (yellow) variety.

The first occurrence of fancy-tailed goldfish was recorded in the Ming dynasty and thy began to raised it indoor. In 1603, Goldfish was introduced to Japan and to Portugal and from there to the other parts of Europe.

During the 1620s, goldfish were highly regarded in southern Europe because of their metallic scales, and symbolised good luck and fortune. It became tradition for married men to give their wives a goldfish on their one-year anniversary, as a symbol for the prosperous years to come.

Goldfish were first introduced to North America around 1850 and quickly became popular in the United States.

Lice & Worms

Lice & Worms


liceLice and worms are quite common parasites in tank. Both of them rely on goldfish to thrive and reproduce which can potentially lead to health problem in your fish. Lice can usually reach up to 5mm in diameter and you can see them quite well without using a microscope. Don’t mistake them with algae or dirt. While worms, Anchor worms can be seen with naked eye on the fish body, while tapeworms are internal parasites, you may also see live or dead tapeworms in your fish’s stools, or hanging from the anus of the fish.



  • Introducing new fish or water that held new fish may bring the parasite to your tank. Thus, quarantine new fish before putting them in your tank is crucial
  • plants gathered from the wild that haven’t been sterilized are sometimes the culprit too.


wormsLice and worms are both visible and can lead to serious health issue in your goldfish. Thus, identifying them is important before action taken. you may find the following symptom in your tank:

  • moving disc shaped lice visibly on the body of your goldfish.
  • They will look like grey-green or brownish slightly raised spots on the fish. You can also see the louses eye spots if you look more closely.
  • Fish appearing irritated and stressed and even attempt to break the water to gain some relief . This may indicate to lice infestation even you can see it with naked eye.
  • Anchor worms are often be visible on your fish, hanging from the head, flanks or fins.Tapeworms are an internal parasite, which will usually be apparent in your fish due to a fast loss of weight and condition.
  • Red sores  that look like boils may also appear on the body of your fish.



There are a  broad-spectrum anti-parasitic medications that you can add to the goldfish tank in order to eradicate parasites such as worms and lice, and these are usually highly effective, although they may require more than one treatment.

Dipterex (Dylox neguvon) is effective in combating lice and worms.It is an insecticide that is soluble in water, comes in liquid or powder form and comes in different potencies ranging from 40 to 98%.

In the case of anchor worms, you may need to physically remove visible worms from the body of your fish using a pair of tweezers in order to give them the best chance of recovery.

If your tank has played host to either lice or worms, it is important to treat the main tank itself, Sterilize the tank completely (including plants) to kill any adults or nauplii of the lice and worms even if the remaining fish after you have removed any sick ones are not showing any signs of illness.


Ich a.k.a White Spot

Ich a.k.a White Spot


Goldfish encounter a common disease named ich , also know as white spot disease which caused protozoan parasite. It is round, covered by cilia (hair-like extensions), and about 1 mm in diameter and so visible to the naked eye. You can obviously see white spots on the infected fish. The parasite penetrates the skin surface of the goldfish and feeds on its tissue and blood.The fish will be ill, with fins held close to the body, and you probably will see the fish flashing off of the object in the tank trying to dislodge the parasite. If the gills are affected your fish will gasp for air.

After a few days of feeding on the fish’s blood, the parasite will leaves the host and  forming a cyst in the tank. Once the reproductive stage complete, about 1000 juvenile parasite are released. These are much smaller than the adult stage and are not visible to the naked eye.

This free-swimming form then seeks out a host, burrows into their skin, and the whole cycle begins again. In addition, because of the small size of the free-swimming stage, they are easily able to enter the gills of the fish. By the time you find white spots on the fish’s fins and body the gills are usually already heavily infected with ich.

The speed of this cycle depends on water temperature.  At 24-26 degrees Celsius the entire life span about four days. Higher temperature may speed up the life span of the parasite.


  • Pet store goldfish that is not quarantine that carry the parasite.
  • Tank that seldom have a water change may cause accumulated toxin which harmful to the fish’s immune system.


  • Small pinhead size white spots that form on the fins and body.  They are more easily seen on dark colored fish but are obvious when they start appearing on fins of lighter fish.
  • Lethargy
  • Scratching and rubbing on objects in the tank


First of all, raise the water temperature gradually to 30+ degree celsius using a aquarium heater and this action will speed up the life span of the parasites . so , it will leave the goldfish quickly . High temperature is too hot for to juvenile parasite to survive.

You should place the goldfish in a mild salt bath and the following treatment are recommended:

  • Non-iodized salt is the cheapest, most effective and safer for your tank.
    • Do a 50%  water change to ensure optimal water quality during the treatment.
    • Dissolve 1 tsp of non-iodized sea salt in a cup full of tank water.  Pour slowly around the tank, and 2 times a day for continuously 3 days.  This will ensure that a 0.3% solution is maintained.  Between each treatment, perform a 25% water change to remove fallen packets of the ich parasite from the bottom of the tank.
  • Malachite Green
  • Methylene Blue : 3 drops per gallon

I tried on the combination of mild salt with Malachite Green or Methylene Blue . It both works for me .

When all cysts have disappeared after a few days,do a 50% water change without adding any chemicals.  Make sure the water temperatures are the same.

Turn off the aquarium heater and keep making daily water changes until all trace of the salt and chemical are gone